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25 October 2007, Volume 29 Issue 05
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  • Articles
    Some Problems in References on Floristic Studies in China
    ZHU Hua
    2007, 29(05):  489-491. 
    Abstract ( 2774 )   HTML ( )   PDF (487KB) ( 3055 )   Save
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    Regional floras in China have been broadly studied since Z . Y . Wu documented distribution types of Chinese seed plants at generic level . A huge number of papers on regional floras have been published . Two main misuses on data analysis were recognized from some articles of the floristic studies: 1 Distribution types at specific level were obtained by directly
    copying the generic areal-types that species belong to; 2 Floristic affinities were concluded by the similarities of composition of areal-types of compared regional floras . Here we clarify that areal-type of a genus is defined by concluding distributions of all species in the genus , therefore specific distribution types are not the same as their generic areal- types except
    monotypic genera . Similarities of composition of areal-types between compared regional floras do not necessarily represent their floristic similarities because the same generic areal-type can be composed by different genera from different plant families . Floristic affinity could be concluded by resemblance coefficients of species, genera and families , especially those
    of endemic ones common to these regions, between the compared regional floras .
    Anatomical Structure Comparison and Barbloin Histochemical Localization of Wild and Cultivated Pulsatilla chinensis (Ranunculaceae)
    WANG Gui-Qin , Abdusalerk N
    2007, 29(05):  492-496. 
    Abstract ( 2475 )   HTML ( )   PDF (808KB) ( 1987 )   Save
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    Anatomical structure and the content of barbloin in primary roots of Pulsatilla chinensis were studied bymeans of anatomy and histochemical localization . The differences between wild and cultivated P. chinensis were as follows: the phloem fiber in roots of wild P. chinensis was dispersed , while that in the cultivated roots gathered to circular or other shapes; a large amount of invade body was found in the vessel cavity of the cultivated; secretory ducts and secretory cavities were rich in the wild , the number and size of which are the main factors determining the barbloin content of P. chinensis .
    Leaf Epidermal Morphology of Lasianthus (Rubiaceae) and Its Related Genera in Asia
    CAI Min , , ZHU Hua, WANG Hong
    2007, 29(05):  497-512. 
    Abstract ( 2510 )   HTML ( )   PDF (3827KB) ( 2210 )   Save
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    Leaf epidermal morphology of 26 species ( including 1 subspecies and 2 varieties) of Lasianthus and 6 species of its related 4 genera Morinda , Psychotria , Saprosma and Urophyllum, were investigated under both light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) . It was shown that the shapes of upper leaf epidermal cells varies from irregularly sinuolate, nearly elliptic to irregularly polygonal. The lower leaf epidermal cells are usually irregularly sinuous or sinuate. The patterns of anticlinal walls are sinuate irregularly , and the ambits are inconspicuous between the cells. It was found that the cell walls of both upper and lower epidermis are covered with thick corticle . Under SEM, the cuticula membrane of the leaf epidermis is distinct, and granular, reticulate, scaly or papilliform in shape. The stomatal apparatus is of paracytic type and occurs only on the lower surface. The stomatas of some species are sunken. Leaf indumentum of Lasianthus species can be classified into single-celled hairs and uniseriate multi- celled hairs including linear, twisted and straight-walled hairs. The leaf epidermal morphology of the related genera in Rubiaceae is similar to Lasianthus. In conclusion, the leaf micro-morphological characteristics have some significance in identification of Lasianthus species, but show regular varia-tion with habitats. The variations of the ratio between stomatal polar axis and outer stomatal ledge aperture, as well as leaf indumentum of Lasianthus species are well correspondent to their habitats .
    Pollen Morphology of Sixteen Taxa of the Calameae (Palmae)
    LIU Guang-Fu , , WANG Kang-Lin, YANG Yu-Ming
    2007, 29(05):  513-520. 
    Abstract ( 2582 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1153KB) ( 1958 )   Save
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    The pollen grains of 8 species and 4 varieties of Calamus, 1 species of Plectocomia, 1 species of Daemonorops, and 2 species of Salacca (Palmae ) were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The pollen aperture of Calamus is dicolpate, and its tectum of exine is reticulate, perforate or foveolate. The aperture of D. matgaritae is dicolpate, which differs from the previous report, and its tectum of exine is granulate. The aperture of P. kerrana is dicolpate, and its tectum of exine is reticulate, although the aperture of S. secunda is also dicolpate but its tectum is smooth, sparsely perforate or foveolate. The apertures of S. zalacca is nearly annualocolpate, and its tectum is densely perforate with large supratectal spines. This research shows that pollen morphology can reflect the differences between the species of Calamus. The results also support the previous taxonomical status of : 1) C. balansaeanus var. castaneolepis, C. erectus var . birmanicus, C. palustris var . longistachys as varieties; 2) C. karinensis as independent species. Furthermore , pollen morphology is of important significance to elucidate the relationship between Calamus and its related genera .
    Morphological Study on Gemmae and Gemmalings of Huperzia javanica (Huperziaceae)
    WANG Xiao-Li , LI Wan-Kui , ZHOU Ji-Yan, HU Zhi-B
    2007, 29(05):  521-526. 
    Abstract ( 2760 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1349KB) ( 2129 )   Save
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    To investigate the morpholgoy of gemma and its role in the asexual vegetation of genus Huperzia, gemmae and gemmalings of Huperzia javanica collected from field and potted plants were morphologically described , the development of gemmalings from germinated gemmae was recorded , the number of new born gemmae and that of the residues of gemmiphores were calculated . Results showed that a gemma ( sensu lato) consisted of a gemma ( sensu stricto) and a gemmiphore, the former being a bud surrounded by three pairs of microphylls, the latter a stipe consisted of three pairs of scale
    leaves . Gemmae ( sensu stricto) germinated and developed into gemmalings in one week after abscission from the gemmiphores. Gemmiferous branches could produce gemmae with an average number of five. Occurrence of gemmae had some degree of periodicity, thus it provided one way to estimate the growth rate and age of the plant .
    Phycopeltis epiphyton (Trentepohliaceae) on Leaves of Huperzia in China
    ZHOU Han-Hua
    2007, 29(05):  527-528. 
    Abstract ( 2221 )   HTML ( )   PDF (787KB) ( 1738 )   Save
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    Phycopeltis epiphyton on leaves of several members of fern genus Huperzia is reported for the first time in this article. The alga from China′s Guizhou Province was examined with light microscope, and a detailed description of it was given .
    Population Genetic Diversity of Bombax malabaricum(Bombacaceae) in China
    WANG Shu-Li , , LI Qiao-Ming
    2007, 29(05):  529-536. 
    Abstract ( 2930 )   HTML ( )   PDF (844KB) ( 2383 )   Save
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    In order to discuss the level of genetic diversity of Bombax malabaricum, we surveyed the genetic diversity of 4 populations (YJ, YM, QJ, DJ) from dry-hot valleys of Yunnan province, 2 populations (GX, HN) from dry-hot regions
    and 1 population (BN) from wet-hot region of Yunnan using ISSR molecular markers . Based on 10 selected primers, 142 clear and reproducible DNA fragments were generated. The percentage of polymorphic loci PPB was 90.14%, Nei′s ( 1973) gene diversity H was 0. 2530 and Shannon′s Information index I was 0. 3864 . The coefficient of genetic differentiation
    ( GST ) was 0. 1870 and the Фst was 0. 177 estimated by AMOVA. The results showed high level of genetic diversity within population and low level of genetic differentiation among populations. We inferred that the high level of genetic diversity and effective gene flow of B. malabaricum may play an important role in its better adaptability. Considering the introduction of B. malabaricum in dry-hot regions, we suggest to sample abundantly within populations and involve different populations .
    Assessment of Genetic Variation and Differentiation of Ligularia tongolensis (Compositae) Detected by ISSRs
    WANG Jin-Feng , , Chiaki kuroda , GONG Xun
    2007, 29(05):  537-542. 
    Abstract ( 2634 )   HTML ( )   PDF (807KB) ( 1891 )   Save
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    The genetic diversity of Ligularia tongolensis ( Franch.) Hand.-Mazz. was analyzed by inter-simple sequence repeat markers (ISSR). Eight informative and reliable primers were chosen from100 pre-screened primers, of which, 148 ISSR loci were polymorphic. Genetic diversity was high with PPB = 50. 45%, H = 0.1595 and I = 0.2440 at population level; PPB = 88.10% , H = 0.2811 and I = 0.4279 at species level. The Gst = 0.4355 indicated a high degree of genetic differentiation occurred among L. tongolensis populations. The main factor responsible for the high level genetic diversity and genetic differentiation among populations ascribed to diversified habitats diversification. Gene flow was inhibited by its habitats discontinuity which finally caused the genetic differentiation .
    Closure Behavior of the Touching-sensitive Stigmas in Flowering Plants and Its Adaptive Significance
    AI Hong-Lian , , YU Wen-Bin , , WANG Hong
    2007, 29(05):  543-548. 
    Abstract ( 2879 )   HTML ( )   PDF (596KB) ( 2397 )   Save
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    Studies on the closure behavior of the touch-sensitive stigmas in flowering plants are one of the hotspots in pollination ecology and evolutionary biology. Examples of closure behavior of bi- or multi-lobed stigmas in response to being touched by animal pollinators were mainly studied in some taxa of the order Scrophulariales . Such phenomenon had been studied at the beginning of 1990s. Generally, stigma closure has been attributed to the loss of turgor in cells comprising the stigmatic tissues, during pollen germination and subsequent pollen tube growth absorbing water from surrounding tissues in the pistil. Various hypotheses addressing the adaptive significance of stigma closure have been proposed. Recent years, studies indicated that stigma closure may increase pollen capture and receipt, improve pollen germination and pollen tube growth, and prevent intra-floral selfing. It was also suggested that stigma closure can reduce interference between pollen receipt and pollen dissemination. Stigma closure affects pollen deposition and reduces interference between pollen dispersal and stigmatic receipt as well . Foraging behavior of pollinator is strongly influenced by the status of the stigmas . Until now, the mechanism of stigma closure and the hypotheses of avoiding self-pollination have been still uncertain. Some experiments with male-female interference and the intra-floral selfing should be carried out to test the adaptive significance of stigma closure. In this paper, recent advances in the sensitive stigma are summarized , and some problematical issues are also discussed .
    Genetic Diversity of the Endangered and Endemic Species, Primula merrilliana (Primulaceae), Revealed by RAPD Analysis
    PENG Yan-Qiu, SHAO Jian-Wen, , ZHANG Xiao-Ping, , ZHANG Zhong-Xin, ZHU Guo-Ping,
    2007, 29(05):  549-553. 
    Abstract ( 2809 )   HTML ( )   PDF (777KB) ( 2061 )   Save
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    Genetic diversity of 134 individuals from 6 natural populations of Primula merrilliana, an endangered and endemic species in Anhui province, was assessed using RAPD markers. A total of 158 amplified bands were evaluated from 12 informative and reliable primers screened from 100 RAPD primers, and 129 bands were polymorphic loci ( PPL). Analysis with POPGENE showed a high proportion of genetic variation ( PPL = 81.65%, He = 0.2515, Ho = 0. 3849) for Primula merrilliana. Analyzed by Nei′s gene diversity index, the coefficient of the genetic differentiation ( GST ) was 0.5511, which was consistent with Shannon information index (54.48% ). The main factors responsible for the high degree of genetic differentiation among populations may result from habitat fragmentation and barriers of gene flow. The pattern of genetic variation provides important data and valuable information for the conservation strategies of Primula merrilliana, such as protecting their natural habitats and existing populations and individuals, improving the gene flow among populations, and sampling within more populations during ex situ conservation .
    Artificial Fungal Colony and Its Fruiting of Phlebopus portentosus (Boletaceae) in Pot
    JI Kai-Ping, ZHANG Chun-Xia, ZENG Yan, LIU Chang-Fen, HE Ming-Xia, WANG Weng-Bing
    2007, 29(05):  554-558. 
    Abstract ( 2370 )   HTML ( )   PDF (756KB) ( 2250 )   Save
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    Nutrient solution was added into soil to improve the growth of hyphae and its host seedlings ( Coffea arabica). Pure culture of Phlebopus portentosus was inoculated in the roots of the host seedling. Results showed that over 92.5% of seedlings were found with mycorrhiza . External hyphae develop to the top or side of the roots, and even in the soil around roots. Fungal colonies (shiros) were ultimately formed. It was found that young fruit bodies appeared around or among the host seedlings after inoculation of 20 days. 52 of 162 young fruit bodies grew into mature in pots.
    Cultivation and Molecular Identification of Two Bolete Strains Isolated from Boletus edulis Complex of Yunnan, China

    WANG Hai-Kun, , LI Tao, ZHAO Dan-Dan, LI Ling-Fei, SHA Tao, ZHAO Zhi-Wei

    2007, 29(05):  559-562. 
    Abstract ( 2760 )   HTML ( )   PDF (682KB) ( 2310 )   Save
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    Two bolete strains were obtained from fruiting bodies by tissue isolation and culture methods. Conditions for isolation and cultivation of the two strains were studied .Molecular identification was carried out based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers ( ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of the strains. Neighbour-joining analysis showed that the two isolates belong to the Boletus edulis complex and have a close phylogenetic relationship to B. aestivalis.
    Endogenous Plant Hormone Contents in Relation to Flower
    Bud Differentiation in Ficus carica (Moraceae)
    LUO Yu-Wei, XIE Wei-Hua, MA Kai
    2007, 29(05):  563-568. 
    Abstract ( 2622 )   HTML ( )   PDF (950KB) ( 2448 )   Save
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    Based on the morphological results of the flower bud differentiation in Ficus carica L.‘Brunswick', we quantified certain plant hormones, including ZR, ABA, GA1+3 and IAA, in the developing flower bud at the differentiation stage
    on the seventh or the eighth node of the new shoots, and found that at the stage of floral receptacle and floscule formation, the buds contained high level of ZR and ABA, and low level of GA1+3 and IAA, leading to a high ratio of ABA to IAA, ABA to GA1+3 ZR to GA1+3 , and ZR to IAA, respectively.
    The Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Seedling Emergence in Gaps of Karst Forest in Maolan Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province
    LONG Cui-Ling , YU Shi-Xiao
    2007, 29(05):  569-574. 
    Abstract ( 2214 )   HTML ( )   PDF (629KB) ( 1994 )   Save
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    Seed natural germination in gaps of karst forest in Maolan Nature reserve, Guizhou Province were observed in 4 observation times . Germination number and survival rate of seedlings in gaps, differences in temporal and spatial patterns of seedling emergence were investigated . The results showed that survival rate of seedlings of most species in gaps was high and average survival rate was above 50%. It increased not only the germination rate of tree seeds but also the survival rate of seedlings because of gap formation in karst forest. Seedling density has spatial heterogeneity in different area of gap center, near gap center and gap border. Seedling density of Poliothyrsis sinensis and Ulmus castaneifolia were great in gap center, seedling density of Platycarya longipes, Cladrastis platycarpa, Sapium rotundifolium, Handeliodendron bodinieri, Pistacia chinensis and Carpinus pubescens were great near gap center and seedling density of Acer cinnamomifolium, Viburnum propinquum, Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia and Litsea verticillata were great in gap border where light was slight .Mostof seedlings emerged during the second census. Although germination occurred over the entire observing stage, the total number of seedlings decreased distinctively with the second time . Seedling germination differed temporally among three gap areas. Seedling germination was the most quick in gap center, but in gap border seedlings lagged behind the others. The results showed that it was favorable for seed germination in gap center, but was favorable for seedlings survival near gap center.
    Study on the Mongolian Traditional Knowledge of Wild Edible Plants in Ordos Plateau
    Manliang, , ZHANG Xin-Shi, , Khasbagan, Erdemtuu
    2007, 29(05):  575-585. 
    Abstract ( 2721 )   HTML ( )   PDF (757KB) ( 2207 )   Save
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    The ethnobotanical“5W+ 1H”methods and field investigation have been applied to study the Mongolian traditional knowledge of wild edible plants in Ordos Plateau. The results show that 1) There are 50 species wild edible plants, which belong to 22 families and 32 genera in Ordos Plateau; 14 species used as grain, 13 as vegetables, 18 as fresh or dried fruits, 3 as ratafee, 5 as spice, 2 as cleanser and disinfector, 1 as catalyzer dairy produce. 2) The Mongolian traditional knowledge of wild edible plants in Ordos Plateau include seven aspects. Some traditional knowledge is unique and regarded as the innovation of the Mongolian eating culture. For example, it is special to use plant to clean and disinfect the wares of dairy foods, and to use Artemisia frigida to catalyze the separation of oil from the milk. It is the innovation of Mongolian traditional knowledge of wild edible plants, and it has lively Mongolian character. The simple-fast“fruit + milk”wine culture implies that the Mongolian ancestor had known the technology and culture of development and utilization of plant resources. The indigenous knowledge, including taking Achnatherum splendens caryopsis, Caragana davazamcii phloem, and Artemisia sphaerocephala fruit as mucilage of the cooked wheaten food are all the Ordos special knowledge. 3) Forecological conditions different, the Mongolian traditional knowledge of wild edible plants differs with varied places, the mountain-zone, sand-zone, salt-zone and hill-zone people in Ordos Plateau have different traditional knowledge. 4) Mongolian traditional knowledge of wild edible plants in Ordos Plateau improves Mongolian eating culture, and it contributes a lot to Mongolian culture. The Ordos Mongolian traditional knowledge of plants is the cultural basis of sustainable use of plant resources and exploitation of new products. It is necessary to collect, conserve, study and develop their indigenous knowledge of plants, which will improve the conservation of Ordos Mongolian traditional knowledge. Such knowledge will promote the sustainable development socio- economics as well .
    Chemical Investigation of Sulcaria virens (Alectoriaceae)
    ZHOU Zhong-Yu, , WANG Li-Song, WANG Fei, , LIU Ji-Kai
    2007, 29(05):  586-590. 
    Abstract ( 2582 )   HTML ( )   PDF (997KB) ( 2064 )   Save
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    A new linoleic acid derivative, was isolated from the lichen Sulcaria virens together with 12 known compounds. The structure of the new compound was determined as 9, 10-O-isopropyllidene -(12 Z)- en-octadecaoic acid (1) by spectroscopic analysis. Other 12 known compounds were ( 9 Z, 12 Z ) -octadecadienoic acid (2), evernic acid (3 ), ( R )- usnic acid (4), vulpinic acid (5), atranorin (6), virensic acid (7), abieslactone (8), 3α-hydroxylanosta-7, 24-dien-26, 23 R-olide (9), taraxerol (10), taraxerone (11), 5α, 8α-epidioxy -( 22 E, 24 R )-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3β-ol (12 ), 2, 2′-tetrahydrosqualene (13).
    Molecular Evolution of Steroidal Saponins in the Genus Polygonatum (Convalleriaceae) and Their Chemotaxonomical Significance
    YANG Chong-Ren, ZHANG Ying, , WANG Dong, ZHANG Ying-Jun
    2007, 29(05):  591-600. 
    Abstract ( 2824 )   HTML ( )   PDF (881KB) ( 2875 )   Save
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    Based on the results of the phytochemical studies on genus Polygonatum, this paper divided all of the steroidal sapogenins that isolated from this genus into five classes of the oxidation level. The rules of the molecular evolution of these sapogenins in different oxidation levels were analyzed. Moreover, correlations between the molecular evolution of steroidal saponins and the morphological aspects of this genus were discussed. The results showed that the original taxa, such as the species from Ser. Alternifolia, contained saponins with lower oxidation level. Whereas , most of the saponins with higher oxidation level sapogenins were found mostly in the relative evolutive taxa, especially in Ser. Verticillata. This chemotaxonomic viewpoint will conduce to establish a phylogeny of the genus Polygonatum.