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25 August 2007, Volume 29 Issue 04
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  • Articles

    On the Classification of Forest Vegetation in Xishuangbanna, Southern Yunnnan

    ZHU Hua
    2007, 29(04):  377-387. 
    Abstract ( 2721 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1156KB) ( 2442 )   Save
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    Xishuangbanna of southern Yunnan is a region of extremely interest to biologists and also a hotspot for biodiversity conservation . It is located in a transitional zone from tropical Southeast Asia to temperate East Asia biogeographically. The present paper reviewed vegetation types of Xishuangbanna and suggested a revised classification system based on the
    updated study results over the last two decades . By combining physiognomic and floristic characteristics with ecological performances and habitats , the primary forest vegetation in Xishuangbanna can be organized into four main vegetation types: tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal moist forest, tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest and tropical monsoon forest. The tropical rain forest can be classified into two subtypes , i. e. tropical seasonal rain forest in the lowlands and tropical montane rain forest on higher elevations. The tropical seasonal rain forest in this region shows similar forest profile and physiognomic characteristics to those of equatorial lowland rain forests and is a type of world tropical rain forest. Because of conspicuous similarity on floristic composition , the tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna is a type of tropical Asian rain forest . However , since the tropical seasonal rain forest occurs at the northern edge of tropical SE Asia, it differs from typical lowland rain forests in equatorial areas in maintaining some deciduous trees in the canopy layer , fewer megaphanerophytes and epiphytes but more abundant lianas and more plants with microphyll . It is a type of semi-evergreen rain forest at the northern edge of the tropical zone . The tropical montane rain forest occurs in wet montane habitats and is similar to the lower montane rain forests in equatorial Asia in floristic composition and physiognomy . It is a variety of lower montane rain forests at the northern tropical edges of tropical rain forests . The tropical seasonal moist forest occurs on middle and upper limestone mountains and is similar to the tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest of the region in physiognomy, but it differs from the latter in floristic composition. The monsoon forest in Xishuangbanna is a tropical deciduous forest under the influence of a strong monsoon climate and is considered to be a transitional vegetation type between tropical rain forest and savanna in physiognomy and distribution. The tropical montane evergreen broad- leaved forest is the main vegetation type in mountain areas . It is dominated by the tree species of Fagaceae , Euphorbiaceae , Theaceae and Lauraceae in majority. It differs from the tropical montane rain forests in lack of epiphytes and having more abundant lianas and plants with compound leaves . It is considered to be a distinct vegetation type in the northern margin of mainland southeastern Asia controlling by a strong monsoon climate, based on its floristic and physiognomic characteristics.
    Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Paris polyphylla (Trilliaceae) by ISSR Markers
    HE Jun , , YANG Bai-Yun , CHEN Shao-Feng , GAO Lian-Ming , WANG Hong
    2007, 29(04):  388-392. 
    Abstract ( 2980 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1260KB) ( 1956 )   Save
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    Some species of the genus Paris are of high medicinal value . Severe human activities particularly over-harvesting have led to recent declines of their population size and fragmented habitat patches . Inter-simple sequence repeat markers ( ISSR) were applied to investigate the genetic diversity of eight populations of Paris polyphylla in Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces. Fourteen primers resulted to a total of 251 bands from the eight populations, of which 235 were polymorphic, which showes a high level of genetic diversity in this species . A relatively high level of genetic diversity was revealed: PPB
    = 93 . 63% , HE = 0 . 2204 and HO = 0. 3532 at the species level; PPB = 50. 45%, HE = 0.1405 and HO = 0.2194 at the population level. The GST= 0. 3625 indicated a high degree of genetic differentiation among populations . Genetic variation occurred mainly within populations . In UPGMA cluster analysis the six populations of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were divided into two clades , and P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis is more related to P. polyphylla var . stenophylla than to P. polyphylla var . pseudothibetica . In this paper , some conservation concerns were discussed which would be helpful for the conservation and sustainable utilization of this medicine resources.
    Four Newly Recorded Species of Orchidaceae from Yunnan, China
    JIN Xiao-Hua , LI Heng , LI De-Zhu
    2007, 29(04):  393-394. 
    Abstract ( 2889 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1252KB) ( 1748 )   Save
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    Cheirostylis thailandica , Listera brevicaulis, Pholidota recurva and Sunipia annamensis are recorded for the first time in China . Cheirostylis thailandica is characterized by its petals with recurved tips and non-adnate to dorsal sepal , two green spots at the base of epichile, non-fringed lobules and stylids slightly longer than rostellum arms . Listera brevicaulis differs from all its allies by having very short stem with its leaves prostrate on the ground , bilobed lip with its lobelets recurved and meeting underneath. Pholidota recurva is characterized by its cylindrical and superposed internodes, secund
    flowers and emarginated-tipped lip. Sunipia annamensis is easily distinguished from its relatives by its inflorescence much longer than leaves and fleshy , broadly cordate lip with upcurved edges .
    Cyclobalanopsis sichourensis, a New Record Species of Fagaceae in Guizhou
    CHEN Wen-Yun, JI Yun-Heng, DENG Min , CHEN Shao-Tian, ZHOU Zhe-Kun
    2007, 29(04):  395-396. 
    Abstract ( 2735 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1150KB) ( 1755 )   Save
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    Cyclobalanopsis sichourensis, a newly recorded species to Guizhou , China , is reported . An additional description and conservation status of the species is presented .
    Spore Morphology of the Family Dryopteridaceae
    LU Jin-Mei , LI De-Zhu, WU Ding
    2007, 29(04):  397-408. 
    Abstract ( 2695 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2004KB) ( 1810 )   Save
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    The spore morphology of 65 species of 19 genera representing Dryopteridaceae and its allies were investigated by light microscopy , and 30 species of 12 genera among them were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy . The spores of Dryopteridaceae are monolete , bilaterally symmetrical, and the aperture is 1/2 - 3/4 of the spore in length. The polar outline is ellipsoidal to subsphaeroidal , and the equatorial longitudinal view is kidney-shaped . The value of P/E ranges from 0.60 to 0.86. The size of spore varied from medium to large . SEM observations showed that perine was present. There are diversified spore ornamentations in Dryopteridaceae : echinate, tuberculate , granulate , lophate , fenestrate, auriculate, lamellate and alate . Furthermore , there exist intermediate types . The relationships among genera in the Dryopteridaceae are discussed based on spore morphology . The results implied that : (1 ) Acrorumohra , Nothoperanema , and Peranemaceae were closely related to Dryopteris; ( 2) Leptorumohra , Phanerophlebiopsis and Lithostegia were closely related to Arachniodes . ( 3) The similar spore ornamentations shared by Sorolepidium and some species of Polystichum suggested Sorolepidium be considered as part of Polystichum . (4) Cyclopeltis was supported to be excluded from the Dryopteridaceae because of its unique alate spore ornamentation .
    Comparison of Leaf Structures among Seventeen Moss Species Collected from Different Habitats
    Yang Wu , Guo Shui-Liang , , FANG Fang
    2007, 29(04):  409-417. 
    Abstract ( 2587 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1855KB) ( 1940 )   Save
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    The leaf structures of 17 mosses collected from different environmental conditions were transected and compared by means of paraffin wax section . The results showed that species vary much among the features such as the absence or presence of hydrome cells, the differentiation of steroid cells, the numbers of cell layer , the density of the costae, the numbers of laminal cell layer , etc . The leaf anatomical structures of the mosses are of ecological adaptation to their habitats . The mosses under dry conditions often have thickened laminal cell-walls on the surfaces , and some of them have appendiculate structures . The differentiation states of costae indicates the ways they absorb and transport water , and their ability adapting to the dry conditions, which was elucidated by the following examples: Brachythecium plumosum, because of its thin cell-walls in the costae and the absence of hydrome , assistant and steroid cells, can absorb water and nutrition under
    shady and moist conditions ; Plagiomnium rostratum, though often grows in shady and wet condition , has hydrome and steroid cells, a feature similar to those of xeric mosses , which endows it to grow in the conditions with periodical drought stress during its life cycle ; Hygrohypnum luridum is characterized by its slender leaves with only one layer of cells , the thin cellwalls, the absence of filaments on the leaf surface, and the fewer layer cells in the costae, the absence of hydrome and steroid cells . These features make it adaptable to aquatic environments . For Pogonatum inflexum and Atrichum undulatum, their ventral surfaces covered with lamella, while for Racomitrium japonicum, Thuidium cymbifolium, Macromitrium ferriei, Diphyscium fulvifolium, Barbula unguiculata and Ceratodon purpureus, their leaves are strongly mammillose or papillos. Such appendiculate structures made them adaptable to dry conditions .

    Study on Degeneration of Unfertilized Aposporous Embryo Sac in Pennisetum squamulatium (Gramineae)

    LIU Lin , , YE Xiu-Lin
    2007, 29(04):  418-422. 
    Abstract ( 2319 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1191KB) ( 1604 )   Save
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    To understand the degeneration of unfertilized aposporous embryo sac in an aposporous species Pennisetum squamulatum, the central cell in the unfertilized embryo sac was characterized ultrastructurally . The most prominent sign of degeneration is that the central cell nucleus produced nuclear vacuoles . These nuclear vacuoles can be classified into singleand
    double- layered types . Single- layered nuclear vacuoles are found in the cytoplasm, while the double-layered are inside the nucleus . There are two ways to produce nuclear vacuoles . One is that the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope distends towards the cytoplasm to form nuclear vacuoles ; and the other is the double-layered nuclear envelope derives vacuoles by depressing inwards . Nuclear envelope types are in relation to the ways they are produced . All nuclear vacuoles absorb cytoplasm or nuclear matrix , and trap organelles such as mitochondria .
    Physical Mapping of 25S rDNA on Metaphase Chromosomes of Populus (Salicaceae) in Five Sections by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization
    DONG Feng-Ping , HAN Su-Ying , ZHANG Shou-Gong , QI Li-Wang ,
    LIU Bo , LI Xiu-Lan , CHEN Cheng-Bin
    2007, 29(04):  423-428. 
    Abstract ( 2341 )   HTML ( )   PDF (986KB) ( 2049 )   Save
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    This study examined the physical localizations of the 25S rDNA on the mitotic metaphase chromosomes of seven species in the five sections of Populus, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) . Four 25 rDNA loci were detected on the chromosomes of five wild diploid species (2n = 2x = 38) , P. tomentosa , P. nigra var. thevestina , P. pseudo-simonii, P. lasiocarpa and P. euphratica . Six 25 rDNA loci were detected on the chromosomes of two wild triploid species (2n= 3x = 57) , P. tomentosa in section Leuce and P. euramericana cv . Wuhei-1 in section Aigeiros . While only one pair of 25 rDNA loci located at the smallest chromosome was detected in P. euphratica chromosomes. Coupled with the approach of common karoytype analysis, this article also discusses the variations of 25S rDNA distribution on Populus chromosomes .
    Studies on Karyotypes of Five Populations of Rheum tanguticum (Polygonaceae)
    HU Yan-Ping , , XIE Xiao-Long , , WEN Quan , ZHAO Xu-Dong , , WANG Li , LI Yi
    2007, 29(04):  429-433. 
    Abstract ( 2536 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1405KB) ( 1527 )   Save
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    The chromosome numbers and karyotypes of Rheum tanguticum in 5 populations were firstly reported in this paper. The results are as follows: karyotype formulae of DW, KQ and DK populations are all 2n = 2x = 22 = 2sm + 20m; JK population is 2n = 2x = 22 = 20m+ 2M; SP population is 2n = 2x = 22 = 2sm + 18m+ 2M . The karyotypes of DW, KQ and JK populations belong to 1A type while DK and SP populations belong to 2A type . The result of Q cluster analysis of five populations shows that the karyotypes of 5 populations differentiate in some degree , which may be caused by different habitats .
    Karyomorphology of Three Species in Alstonia (Apocynaceae)
    LI Sheng , , ZHANG Zhao-Yang , LIU Li-Qin , , YANG Jing , , GU Zhi-Jian
    2007, 29(04):  434-438. 
    Abstract ( 2382 )   HTML ( )   PDF (740KB) ( 1536 )   Save
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    A karyomorphological study was performed on 3 Alstonia species in Yunnan Province, China . The karyotype of A. rostrata is reported for the first time . The results show that the chromosome numbers in the 3 species are 2n = 42 , and the chromosome numbers of A. scholaris and A. yunnanensis are both unexpectedly different from the previous reports“2n= 44. The interphase nuclei of A. rostrata , A. scholaris and A. yunnanensis were observed to be the rod-shaped prochromosome type, the round prochromosome type and the complex chromocenter type respectively, and the prophase chromosome types of the 3 species were all the interstitial one . The karyotype formulas are as follow: 2n = 42 = 3M+ 21m+ 18sm( A. rostrata) , 2n = 42 = 14m+ 24sm+ 4st ( A. scholaris) and 2n = 42 = 5m+ 37sm ( A. yunnanensis ). Karyotype asymmetries are of type 2A in A. rostrata , 3A in A. scholaris and 3B in A. yunnanensis. Based on the results, combined with the evidence from comparative morphology and cytology, the systematic position and evolutionary trend of this genus were briefly discussed .
    Chromosome Number and Karyotype of Silene gracilicaulis
    (Caryophyllaceae) from Hengduan Mountains

    LI Zhi-Min , HE Wen-Jie
    2007, 29(04):  439-440. 
    Abstract ( 2110 )   HTML ( )   PDF (622KB) ( 1726 )   Save
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    Chromosome numbers and karyotype of Silene gracilicaulis from Hengduan mountains were studied in this paper. The chromosome numbers are 2n = 24 , and the karyotype formula is 2n = 2x = 24 = 22m+ 2sm, and it belongs to 2A type .
    Karyotype of the Two Species of Genus Dieffenbachia (Araceae)
    CHEN Ai-Kui , ZHUANG Mei-Yan , HUANG Ming-Hua
    2007, 29(04):  441-443. 
    Abstract ( 2370 )   HTML ( )   PDF (907KB) ( 1985 )   Save
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    This paper investigates the chromosome numbers and karyotypes of two species of Dieffenbachia . The result shows that the karyotype formula of D. daguensis is K (2n ) = 2x = 34 = 12m + 18sm+ 4st , which is of 3B type with As·K% = 66.52% ; the karyotype formula of D. maculata is K (2n ) = 2x = 34 = 2M+ 28m + 4sm, which is of 1B type withAS·K% = 55.38% . Compared with the more advanced members in Typhonium and Sauromatu, the karyotype of Dieffenbachia is rather primitive, and the karyotypes of Araceae are rather diverse .
    Production of Flavonoids in Cell Suspension Culture of Glycyrrhiza inflata (Leguminosae)
    YANG Ying, HE Feng , YU Long-Jiang, CHEN Xue-Hong, LEI Jing, JI Jia-Xing, FU Chun-Hua
    2007, 29(04):  444-446. 
    Abstract ( 2432 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1130KB) ( 1574 )   Save
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    The cell biomass, flavonoids production and nutrients consumption were monitored to characterize the culture of progressive scale-up of Glycyrrhiza inflata . The maximum biomass, flavonoids production and the maximum specific growth rate in the culture of 250 and 500mL flasks remain similar , but were significantly higher than that of 1 000 mL flask. The three parameters in the culture of 1 000mL flask were 27% , 30% , and 27% lower than that of 250 mL flask , respectively. The concentrates of phosphate , nitrate and ammonium in progressive scale-up flasks decreased similarly . Phosphate and nitrate were almost exhausted on day 10 and 18 in all flasks, respectively; while ammonium maintained about 100mg/L till cells were harvested. The basic culture conditions needed to be further optimized for higher flavonoids production on a bioreactor scale .
    The Study Progress of Alterative Oxidase in Higher Plant
    WANG Ya-Ying , , TIAN Hui-Qiao
    2007, 29(04):  447-456. 
    Abstract ( 2433 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1077KB) ( 3445 )   Save
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    Alternative oxidase (AOX), a terminal oxidase located in the inner mitochondrial membrane , has been identified universally in plant , algae , fungi, and protozoan . AOX branches from the cytochrome pathway at the level of the ubiquinone and catalyses the oxidation of ubiquinol and reduction of oxygen to water . There is non-protonmotive and energy is liberated as heat instead of producing ATP . In thermogenic plants, heat released by AOX attracts insects for pollination by heating aromatic compounds . The use of AOX in plant may ( a) allow flexibility of respiration under changing environmental conditions (b) regulate energy homeostasis ( c ) help prevent oxidative stress ( d ) maintain TCA cycle turnover. AOX is a member of di- iron carboxylate proteins . Two structural models exist for AOX and the latest one is a monotopic protein instead of span membrane . Relatively little is known about its 3-dimensional structure. Main reason is that the sufficient quantities of AOX suitable for crystallogram structural studies is unavailable because of its unstableness . Recently we tried to obtain sufficient quantities alternative oxidase protein (AOX) for further construction studies . The aim is achieved
    by over-expressing in E. coli and improving purification of native AOX from Arum mitochondrial .
    Study on the RAPD Specific Band of Kava ( Piper , Piperaceae) Transferring to the SCAR Molecular Marker
    SHI Jiang , XIN Li , TAN Lin , ZHENG Xue-Qin
    2007, 29(04):  457-460. 
    Abstract ( 2211 )   HTML ( )   PDF (800KB) ( 1907 )   Save
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    This paper studied on 28 pepper materials, including 16 cultivated papper materials, 3 wild pepper materials, 2 wild relatives of pepper materials , 6 kava ( Piper methysticum) materials, and 1 Peperomia pellucida materials. According to RAPD analysis, we generate SCAR marker for identifying Kava ( Piper, Piperaceae ) . A Kava-associated fragment with a length ofabout 400 bp was generated with OPQ-03 primer . The fragment was cloned and sequenced . PCR amplification with the specific primers P7 . 1 ( 5′-GGT CAC CTC ACC GCA GCA GGA TGA ACG-3′) and P7 .2 (5′-GGT CAC CTC AAT GAC ATG GGA TGA ATC-3′) was performed to 28 materials , which 27 materials amplified the 440 bp specific band except for Peperomia pellucida Kunth .
    Community Structure Features of Emmenopterys henryi (Rubiaceae) in Dapanshan National Natural Reserve of Zhejiang Province
    CHEN Zi-Lin , , KANG Hua-Jing , LIU Peng ** , WEI Fu-Min
    2007, 29(04):  461-466. 
    Abstract ( 2388 )   HTML ( )   PDF (717KB) ( 1856 )   Save
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    Emmenopterys henryi , an endemic species in China , being one of the grade Ⅱ national key conservation rare and endangered plants . Based on the data collected from sample plots, the community structure features in Dapanshan National Natural Reserve of Zhejiang Province were analysed. The results showed that the companion species of E . henryi were evergreen and from Lauraceae and Camelliaceae . The richness index , species diversity index and evenness index in the E. henryi community were low, but ecological dominance index was high . In the community , dominant life form, dominant leaf size , dominant leaf form, dominant leaf texture was phanerophytes, mesophyll , single leaves, herbaceous leaves respectively and whose percentage was 75.9%, 53.97%, 74.70%, 63.86% respectively. The second leaf sizewas microphyll, whose percentage was 36.51%. The spatial patterns of E. henryi population mostly conformed to clump distribution, and the tree layer could be easily divided into 3 sublayers in terms of height. The regeneration of population of E. henryi was poor and the population size was declining.
    Changes in Species Number and Causes that Used as Wild Vegetableby Dai People in Xishuangbanna, China
    LI Qin-Jin , , LIU Hong-Mao, XU You-Kai , CHEN Jian , , XU Zai-Fu
    2007, 29(04):  467-478. 
    Abstract ( 2826 )   HTML ( )   PDF (929KB) ( 3704 )   Save
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    By using ethnobotanical approach, we investigated the indigenous knowledge on the utilization of the wild vegetable in three Dai villages named as Man’an, Mansan and Manguangnan in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, which represented
    the differences in natural and social-economic circumastances . A total of 228 plant species belonging to 75 families was recorded that used by local people as wild vegetable , among which , 147 for Man’an , 144 for Mansan and 105 for Manguangnan were recorded. The result of ANOVA ( P < 0.05) showed that there was significant difference among the average number of plant species mentioned by per person in three villages . Average number of plant species mentioned by per person in young group was significantly lower than that in old group. Through comparisons of average number of species mentioned by per person in different age groups, the loss of wild vegetables is much serious between males than between females. Finally, the authors dicussed and analyzed possible drivers that affect the maintaining of the indigenous knowledge on wild vegetable use .

    Changes in Species Number and Causes that Used as Wild Vegetableby Dai People in Xishuangbanna, China
    LI Qin-Jin , , LIU Hong-Mao, XU You-Kai , CHEN Jian , , XU Zai-Fu
    2007, 29(04):  467-478. 
    Abstract ( 2398 )   HTML ( )   PDF (929KB) ( 1982 )   Save
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    By using ethnobotanical approach, we investigated the indigenous knowledge on the utilization of the wild vegetable in three Dai villages named as Man’an, Mansan and Manguangnan in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, which represented
    the differences in natural and social-economic circumastances . A total of 228 plant species belonging to 75 families was recorded that used by local people as wild vegetable , among which , 147 for Man’an , 144 for Mansan and 105 for Manguangnan were recorded. The result of ANOVA ( P < 0.05) showed that there was significant difference among the average number of plant species mentioned by per person in three villages . Average number of plant species mentioned by per person in young group was significantly lower than that in old group. Through comparisons of average number of species mentioned by per person in different age groups, the loss of wild vegetables is much serious between males than between females. Finally, the authors dicussed and analyzed possible drivers that affect the maintaining of the indigenous knowledge on wild vegetable use .

    Antibacterial Triterpenes from Centipeda minima (Compositae)
    LIANG Heng-Xing , , BAO Fu-Kai , DONG Xiao-Ping, LU Qing , CHENG Yong-Xian
    2007, 29(04):  479-482. 
    Abstract ( 2683 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1610KB) ( 1700 )   Save
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    A new triterpene , ursane-20 (30 ) -en-3β, 16β, 21α- triol ( 1) , together with two known compounds , taraxasterol acetate (2) and taraxasterol (3) , was isolated from the whole plants of Centipeda minima. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis . Antibacterial properties of compounds 2 and 3 were evaluated against eight disease-associated microorganisms by the agar dilution method , Both of them displayed potential antibacterial activities .
    Dihydrobenzofurans from Culture Broth of the Basidiomycete Bondarzewia berkeleyi (Bondarzewiace)
    SHAO Hong-Jun , , DONG Ze-Jun , WAN Chuan-Xing , LIU Ji-Kai
    2007, 29(04):  483-485. 
    Abstract ( 2220 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1350KB) ( 1646 )   Save
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    A new dihydrobenzofuran, ( S )-2-(3′-hydroxyisoprop-1′- enyl )-2 , 3-dihydrobenzofuran-5- carbaldehyde ( 1) was isolated from the culture broth of Bondarzewia berkeleyi together with two known dihydrobenzofurans (2 - 3) and one known benzofuran (4) . Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis including 2D NMR experiments , and they were isolated for the first time from the fungi of the genus Bondarzewia .
    Gallic Acid Esters of Bergenin from Saxifraga melanocentra (Saxifragaceae) and Their Inhibition Against HCV NS3 Protease
    ZUO Guo-Ying , , LI Zheng-Quan , Chen Li-Rong , HE Hong-Ping , XU Xiao-Jie
    2007, 29(04):  486-488. 
    Abstract ( 2058 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1094KB) ( 2154 )   Save
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    To study the chemical and bioactive characteristics of bergenin derivatives which were purified from Saxifraga melanocentra Franch ., a new gallic acid ester of bergenin , 11- O- (4 - O-methylgalloyl) bergenin (1) was isolated from the aerial parts of Saxifraga melanocentra Franch ., and its structure was established mainly on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis . It showed weak inhibitory activity against HCV NS3 serine protease with IC50 of 0.32mg/ml .