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25 February 2007, Volume 29 Issue 01
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  • Articles
    Geographical Distribution and Floristic Characters of Salix (Salicaceae) in Qinghai Province
    GUO Shu-Xian, WANG Dong-Mei, WU Xue-Ming, YUAN Jia-Zheng
    2007, 29(01):  1-6. 
    Abstract ( 2969 )   HTML ( )   PDF (703KB) ( 1788 )   Save
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    The geographical distribution and floristic characters of Salix species in Qinghai are studied by means of field survey , examining herbarium specimens and literatures . The result indicates that there are 45 species ( including 5 varieties and 1 form) in Qinghai , they belong to 15 sections, accounting for 100% and 40.9% of species and sections in Qinghai- Tibet plateau , 40.5% and 17.5% of species and sections in China, and take the fourth place in China. They mainly distribute in the Eastern of Qinghai, including the Eastern of Qiliansan Mountain series and the southeastern part of Southern Qinghai plateau, and their vertical distribution concentrates on the altitude 2 000 - 4 000m, it is one of the highest altitude areas of the world that Salix species distribute on. The floristic characters of Salix species in Qinghai Province are as following:1) Rich species; 2 ) High intra specific differentiation; 3 ) Complex geographical components. They are mainly of Eurasia temperate and Qinghai-xizang Plateau distribution, but the component endemic to China plays an important role ; 4) Endemism is not obvious, only accounting for 8.9% of Salix species in Qinghai; 5) Absolute domination with groups of diandrous stamens and monadelphous stamens, accounting for 93.3% of species in Qinghai province. The Salix species in Qinghai Province are closely related to the Eastern (East of Gansu and Shaanxi ) and the southeastern (West of Sichuan , East of Xizang). Because of the continuous lifting of Himalayas and Qinghai-Xizang Plateau since Tertiary, the distribution and floristic characters of Salix in Qinghai, adapting the freezing cold and dried environment, are formed.
    Spore Morphology of Ferns from China Ⅶ . Cyatheaceae
    CAO Jian-Guo , YU Jing, WANG Quan-Xi
    2007, 29(01):  7-12. 
    Abstract ( 2961 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2007KB) ( 2100 )   Save
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    Spore morphology of 11 species of Cyatheaceae from China was examined by the means of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The spores are radially symmetrical and trilete. The aperture ( laesura ) arms are about 3??4 length of the radius of spores. The spores are often triangular in polar view, and hemispheric or flabellate in equatorial view. The length of polar axis is about 28-42μm. The length of equatorial axis is about 32-52μm. The ornamentations of spores are formed by perispore. They can be divided into 4 types, i. e. striate, verrucate, echinate-striate, short- echinulate. The classification of genera in Cyatheaceae was discussed in the present paper.
    Phenetic Analysis of the Genus Pternopetalum (Apiaceae)
    WANG Li-Song
    2007, 29(01):  13-25. 
    Abstract ( 2642 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2159KB) ( 2034 )   Save
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    Phenetic analysis was conducted for 32 taxa of Pternopetalum Franchet (Apiaceae ) by using UPGMA algorithm implemented in DELTA packages, based on 60 morphological characters. The results were shown that the 32 taxa were grouped into two distinct phenetic groups, which was represented by P. vulgare and P. tanakae, respectively. The taxonomic structure of two groups and taxa included in each of them are consistent with section division made by previous researches. Six species complexes, P. vulgar, P. davidii, P.botrychioides, P. molle, P. delavayi and P. tanakae complex, were identified on the basis of phenetic relationships and evaluation of morphological variation. Mapping of character state on phenogram revealed that attached position of umbels, morphology of styles, stylopodium and calyx teeth, were possible key characters responsible for earlier morphological divergence in Pternopetalum. Ecological adaptation to heterogeneous habitats in Mt. Hengduan regions was shown to be characteristics of latter species diversification of Pternopetalum, which was evidenced by differentiated habitat and elevation favor, and combined with indistinct morphological divergence in major species complexes.
    Inflorescence and Flower Development of Globba barthei ( Zingiberaceae)
    KONG Ji-Jun , XIA Yong-Mei , LI Qing-Jun
    2007, 29(01):  26-32. 
    Abstract ( 2519 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1933KB) ( 1996 )   Save
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    Inflorescence of Globba barthei is a thyrse . Primary bracts are initiated in a spiral phyllotactic pattern on the inflorescence apex . Cincinnus primordia are initiated in the axils of primary bracts . These promordia develop secondary
    bracts and floral primordia . The floral primordium continues to enlarge and produce a ring primordium . Sepals are initiated sequentially from the rounded corner of the primordium . The ring primordium separates three common primordium surrounding a central cavity . The adaxial common primordium is the first to separate . This primordium divides transversely and produces
    petal and fertile stamen . The remaining two common primordium transversely separate and produce respectively a petal and a petaloid . As the flower developing , the cavity of the floral cup becomes triangular . The angles of this triangle are the sites of outer androecial primordium . The abaxial androecia forms slightly earlier than the two adaxial ones, and then this primordium ceases growth soon . The two posterior primordia continue growth to produce the lateral petaloid staminodes . During this stage , gynoecia initiate from the floral cup and continue to fuse and develop into style and stigma. In addition ,
    Initiation of the bulbil primordium is observed at base of inflorescence axis during the early floral development . The bulbil primordium initiates in the axil of primary bract . The evolutionary significance of six androecia is discussed .
    Haploid Callus and Plantlets Regenerated from Anther Culture of Dioscorea zingiberensis (Dioscoreaceae)
    YAN Li-Xia, HU Chun-Gen, YAO Jia-Ling
    2007, 29(01):  33-37. 
    Abstract ( 2630 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1642KB) ( 1922 )   Save
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    Haploid plantlet and callus were induced from the anther culture of Dioscorea zingiberensis as the explant at the stag of later uninucleate period. The results indicates that the basal culture media and explants from different population affect dramatically callus induction from anthers . W14 was the best basal media for the first step of callus induction. MS media with BA2.0 mg/L + IAA0.2 mg/L improved callus′multiplication and differentiation. MS media with 2.0 mg/L IBA, 0.4 mg/L NAA and 0.5 g/L active carbon were suitable for rooting. Examination of the anther cultured plantlet displayed that 8%- 12% clones were haploid. The established technique system and obtained haploid plant would provide solid support and valuable materials for further breeding of Dioscorea zingiberensis .
    Discovery of Triploid Erigeron breviscapus (Compositae) and Its Potential for Breeding
    LI Li, DANG Cheng-Lin, HUANG Rui-Fu
    2007, 29(01):  38-42. 
    Abstract ( 2586 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1286KB) ( 1880 )   Save
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    The chromosomes number and karyotypes for an important medicinal plant , Erigeron breviscapus ( Vant. ) Hand. -Mazz. , in wild populations from Yunnan were reported in this paper. Two kind of ploidy levels were observed within two populations of the species. (1) Cangshan population: the karyotype formula of the diploid type is 2n = 2x = 18 = 4m+ 10sm+ 4st and 2n = 3x = 27 = 6m + 12sm+ 9st for triploid, (2 ) Yangjiaping population: the karyotype formulaof the diploid type is 2n = 2x= 18 = 6m + 10sm+ 2st and 2n = 3x= 27 = 3m+15sm+9st for triploid. The triploid type of E. breviscapus was discovered for the first time. Morphological characteristics of the triploid individuals suggest that E. breviscapus has a potential for fostering a better breed .

    Ex Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources through Seed-Gene Bank
    TANG An-Jun, SONG Song-Quan, LONG Chun-Lin
    2007, 29(01):  43-50. 
    Abstract ( 2935 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1567KB) ( 1969 )   Save
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    With the acceleration of extinction of species, biodiversity conservation is extensively concerned. The extinction of species is concerned with the degree of threat by biotic and abiotic factors. So, taking action to preserve plant species is very necessary and paramount before their extinction. One of the most effective biological techniques to conserve the biodiversity is the establishment of genebanks, i. e. ex situ conservation. The elucidation of various factors that regulate seed viability and vigor in storage is essential . An ideal condition to prolong the longevity is mainly depended on seed water
    content, temperature, humidity and types of containers used during storage. The optimum stage of seed maturity, harvesting techniques and processing , in addition to physiological features such as degree of dormancy, also play key roles in seed storage. Certainly, desiccated seeds deteriorate with time even under extremely good genebanking conditions. According to seed storage behavior, it is necessary to consider three principal factors: storage environment, storage duration and plant species which will affect seed survival under good genebanking conditions. The present review is an attempt to discuss the importance of the aforementioned aspects of seeds in detail in order to conserve plant germplasms ( especially wild rare and endangered plants) for ex situ conservation through seed-gene bank.
    Geographical Pattern of Species Richness of Pedicularis (Scrophulariaceae) in Sichuan and Chongqing and Its Relationship with Main Environmental Factors
    WANG Jing, TANG Ya, XIA Yi-Fan, ZHANG Li-Yun
    2007, 29(01):  51-57. 
    Abstract ( 2651 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1225KB) ( 2029 )   Save
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    The distribution pattern of species diversity of Pedicularis in Sichuan and Chongqing, including both geographical and altitudinal pattern, and its relationship with main environmental factors are studied. Following Tsoong′s system, there are 181 species in 70 series of 13 groups ( as“grexes”) now recognized within the genus in Sichuan and Chongqing. The richness of Pedicularis in west of Sichuan is richer than in east of Sichuan. The richness of Pedicularis is richest in altitude 3 500 - 4 000m. With use of GIS, biographic statistics and SPSS, spatial quantitative analysis, correlation analysis,
    relationship between main environmental factors in 148 counties in Sichuan and Chongqing and geographical species diversity pattern of Pedicularis is analysed in order to find out the principal factors which influence the present pattern of species diversity of Pedicularis. The result suggests that the high species diversity of Pedicularis in western Sichuan is closely related to species richness of bumblebees, altitude and ≥15℃ accumulated temperature, implying that Pedicularis might not grow normally in the environment with long warm duration, which is also supported by the flourishing of Pedicularis in
    cold environment in alpine and subalpine areas.
    Traditional Uses of Begonias (Begoniaceae) in China
    GUAN Kai-Yun, YAMAGUCHI Hirofumi, LI Jing-Xiu, LI Hong-Zhe, MA Hong
    2007, 29(01):  58-66. 
    Abstract ( 3058 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2073KB) ( 2089 )   Save
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    Twenty-six species in the genus Begonia were recorded for different purposes as medicine, food, beverage and pig feed in China ( ornamental uses excluded ). Among these twenty-six species recorded for different uses, twenty-four species are used as medicine, eight species are used as food (vegetable ) or beverage, and five species are used as pig feed. Three species are commonly used for making beverage in the areas of their natural distribution. Nine species have multiple uses, either for medicine, for food, beverage or pig feed. Our study also indicated that some species are becoming rare and endangered owning to over collection and other factors.

    Seed Storage Lipid Mobilization during Germination
    CHENG Hong-Yan, SONG Song-Quan
    2007, 29(01):  67-78. 
    Abstract ( 2559 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1098KB) ( 2350 )   Save
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    The advance in mobilization of seed storage lipids was reviewed in this paper. There are different hydrolysis pathways of storage lipids in different seeds. It has now been proposed that there are three possible pathways for mobilization of storage lipids in seeds: direct lipase hydrolysis, acyl-CoA-diacylglycerol acyltransferase pathway, and lipoxygenase pathway. The first two pathways are independent of lipoxygenase. These 3 pathways might co-exist during the seed germination. However, there is no any knowledge about which of the 3 pathways is mainly responsible for, and about what is the differences of plants species in the storage lipid hydrolysis. Moreover, all of these 3 pathways have not been confirmed directly by genetic evidence.
    Optimal Expression of Alternative Oxidase in Escherichia coli
    WANG Ya-Ying, MOORE A L, YANG Shen-Chang, TIAN Hui-Qiao
    2007, 29(01):  74-78. 
    Abstract ( 2523 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2354KB) ( 2237 )   Save
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    Alternative oxidase (AOX), a terminal oxidase located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, has been identified universally in plant, algae, fungi and protozoan. AOX branches from the cytochrome pathway at the level of the ubiquinone and catalyses the oxidation of ubiquinol and reduction of oxygen to water. The enzyme remains difficult to purify to homogeneity in a stable, active form. The paper expressed the AOX with inducer IPTG in pFLAG-1 Escherichia coli system. pFLAG-1 carry a ompA which secretary the AOX to periplasm. Three strategies have combined to increase the yield of AOX. First strategy involved tuning of the inducer concentration while the second involved alter the growth temperature and the last involved differ the cell concentration. The optimized protocol is that the host cell is DH5α, the temperature is 37℃, the cell concentration is OD600 = 0.6 and the IPTG is 0.2 mmol/L. Purification of proteins showed AOX is expressed in unsoluble protein.
    Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Betaine Aldehyde
    Dehydrogenase Gene from the Halophyte Kalidium foliatum (Chenopodiaceae) in Xinjiang on Salinity
    ZENG You-Ling, XING Ting , CAI Zhong-Zhen , ZHANG Fu-Chun
    2007, 29(01):  79-84. 
    Abstract ( 2740 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1896KB) ( 2405 )   Save
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    According to the published sequences of BADH cDNA of several other plants of Chenopodiaceae, two primers have been designed to amplify the fragment of BADH cDNA from Kalidium foliatum through RT-PCR ( reverse transcription
    polymerase chain reaction). A 1503 bp fragment containing entire betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase ( BADH) coding region of 500 amino acids ( aa ) has been obtained. Nucleotide sequence of KfBADH was similar to the corresponding fragment of BADH cDNA of several other plants, such as Atriplex centralasiatica, Atriplex hortensis, Spinacia oleracea, Suaeda liaotungensis, Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, Oryza sativa and so on. Encoded protein by KfBADH and BADH protein from above mentioned plants also shared 71% identity at the amino acid level. The result showed BADH gene was conserved, especially in Chenopodiaceae and encoded functional protein may play an important role in high plants during salt stress. Semi-quantitative gene expression analysis showed that the level of BADH mRNA in plants treated with different NaCl concentration is higher than that in the control plants, suggesting that the accumulation of betaine catalyzed by betaine alde-hyde dehydrogenase as an effective osmolyte is important for Kalidium foliatum during salt stress. The study provided material for further exploring salt tolerant mechanisms of Kalidium foliatum in physiological and molecular aspects.
    Effects of Salt Stress on the Growth and the Photosynthesis in Alternanthera philoxeroides (Amaranthaceae)
    LIU Ai-Rong, ZHANG Yuan-Bing, CHEN Qing-Yu , ZHANG Cong-Yu , XIONG Zhou-Lin , HE Qing-Yuan , WANG Gui-Qin
    2007, 29(01):  85-90. 
    Abstract ( 3155 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1891KB) ( 3877 )   Save
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    Alternanthera philoxeroides was treated with NaCl of different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 mmol/L). The results showed: (1) Under NaCl treatment, the fresh weight, the dry weight and the root shoot ratio decreased. (2) Water content and the succulency degree of whole plant appeared to increase first and then gradually decline as salinity increased. (3) Na+ contents increased and K+ contents decreased in root, stem and leaf. Na+ and K+ contents in leaf were the highest under the same salinity, those in stem were next and those in root were the lowest. (4) FAA content gradually decreased. (5) Pro content appeared to decline first and then increase as salinity increased. (6) Soluble sugar changed in the opposite direction. (7) Pn , Gs and Tr decreased and Ci increased . The relative conductivity of leaves increased significantly. ( 8) The malondialdehyde (MDA) content declined at about NaCl 50mmol/L but increased under at about NaCl 100 - 350 mmol/L. Those parameters indicated that A. philoxeroides was halophyte, but its salt tolerance was not strong and its NaCl optimal concentration lowed 100 mmol/L. Na+ mainly accumulated in stem and leaf of A. philoxeroide and it would probably spread to the salt soil .
    Confirmation of Natural Hybrids between Gentiana straminea and G. siphonantha (Gentianaceae) Based on Molecular Evidence
    LI Xiao-Juan, WANG Liu-Yang, YANG Hui-Ling, LIU Jian-Quan
    2007, 29(01):  91-97. 
    Abstract ( 2853 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2198KB) ( 1968 )   Save
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    A few individuals with intermediate morphology always appear in the sympatric distributions of Gentiana straminea and G. siphonantha. These intermediate individuals were hypothesized to be the hybrids of two species after a careful evaluation of their morphological characters. To test this hypothesis, the sequence comparison of the internal transcribed spacer ( ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal and trnS (GCU)- trnG (UCC) intergenic spacer region of the chloroplast DNA from Gentiana straminea, G. siphonantha, and the putative hybrids was performed. The results suggested that most
    intermediate individuals were the natural hybrids between G. straminea and G. siphonantha. In addition, we examined the sequence variation among the individuals of both parent species and provided the possibility leading to the incongruent identification to some individuals by morphology and molecular evidences respectively. The intraspecific diversification of DNA fragments within both parent species and their high variability in hybrid swarms probably resulted from chloroplast genome recombination and incomplete lineage sorting during the early stage of speciation origin of parent species.
    Establishment of Genetic Transformation System and Transgenic Studies in Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa var. capatata)
    DENG Xiao-Li, ZHOU Yan, CHANG Jing-Ling
    2007, 29(01):  98-102. 
    Abstract ( 2907 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1721KB) ( 1950 )   Save
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    In this experiment , the effects of different hormone concentration on shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants are investigated . The results show that MS medium supplied with 1.5 mg/L 6-BA and 0.2 mg/L IAA is the suitable shoot regeneration. The experiment on sensitivity of cotyledon to hygromycin B and carbenicillin shows that the suitable hygromycin concentration for selecting transgenic tissue is 20 mg/L and the carbenicillin concentration is 300 mg/L. Fused gene O21 - O14 - A21 containing both type O and A FMDV is transferred into lettuce mediated by Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumafaciens. The results of PCR and PCR-Southern blotting indicated that the O21 - O14 - A21 gene were successfully integrated into the genomes of some transformed lettuce plants. Expression of O21 - O14 - A21gene in vtransformed lettuce plants was proved by RT-PCR analyses .
    Genetic Relationship between a Natural Hybrid Meconopsis× cookei (Papaveraceae) and Its Parents Based on cpDNA trnL- trnF Region Sequence
    YUAN Chang-Chun, HE Xue-Bao, YUAN Qiu-Mei, SHI Su-Hua
    2007, 29(01):  103-108. 
    Abstract ( 2361 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1608KB) ( 2014 )   Save
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    The Chloroplast DNA trnL- trnF region sequences from a natural hybrid species Meconopsis× cookei and its parents M. punicea and M. quintuplinervia were obtained by using direct sequencing method. The sequence length of trnL- trnF region is 960 bp for M. × cookei, 961 bp for M. punicea, and 957 bp for M. quintuplinervia. The sequences were aligned by the software Clustal X, and then the bases per locus were compared by using the software with manual method. The aligned sequence length is 964 bp, of which trnL intron is 512 bp, the 3′exon of trnL is 50 bp, trnL- trnF intergenic spacer ( IGS) is 361 bp, and the 5′end segment of trnF is 41 bp. Total 25 variable loci were detected from the aligned sequence, of which 21 (84% ) sites are same between M. × cookei and M. punicea, and only one (4%) is same between M. × cookei and M. quintuplinervia , the remaining three loci (12% ) are different among M. × cookei, M. punicea, and M. quintuplinervia. The results show that the cpDNA trnL- trnF region of the natural hybrid species M. ×cookei was inherited from its parent M. punicea. Therefore, according to the plastid inheritance law, our molecular evidences indicate that M. punicea is the mother of hybrid species M. × cookei and M. quintuplinervia is its father.

    Photosynthetic Characteristic of Three Varieties of Lilium (Liliaceae)“Oriental Hybrids”in the Middle of Yunnan Province
    CHANG Wei, LI Shu-Yun, HU Hong, FAN Ya-Yu
    2007, 29(01):  109-114. 
    Abstract ( 2531 )   HTML ( )   PDF (1616KB) ( 2036 )   Save
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    To understand the ecophysiological adaptation of Lilium“Oriental Hybrids”which was grown for the commercial bulb, the gas exchange, leaf N and chlorophyll content of three varieties were investigated in the middle of Yunnan province. Among three varieties, light saturated photosynthetic rate at ambient CO2 (Amax ) of“Siberia”was the highest, while“Siberia” (was the lowest. The difference in Amax was related to the carboxylation efficiency (CE), leaf mass per unit area and leaf N content per mass, which indicated that their photosynthetic capacity was influenced by the activity and/or the number of Rubisco. Three varieties had lower photosynthetic saturation point and photosynthetic compensation point, but their photosynthetic rate not decreased up to 2 000μmol m- 2 s - 1. This indicated that three varieties had broad adaptability to light intensity. There were significant differences in photosynthetic optimum temperature among three varieties. However, the variety“Siberia”had the highest photosynthetic optimum temperature ( 25.5℃- 34.9℃ ), and it was suitable to grow in the warm area. “Sorbonne”had the lowest photosynthetic optimum temperature ( 19.3℃- 25.6℃ ), and it can be grown in the cool area.“Tiber”could maintain high photosynthetic rate at a wide range of temperature, so it was more suitable for the climate in the middle of Yunnan province.
    Nitric Oxide Alleviates the Nickel Toxicity in Wheat Seedlings
    ANG Song-Hua , ZHOU Zheng-Yi , HE Qing-Yuan, Wang Xiao-Peng, SONG Li-Hong , LU Xiao-Ming
    2007, 29(01):  115-121. 
    Abstract ( 2575 )   HTML ( )   PDF (15211KB) ( 2361 )   Save
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    Effects of nickel on the growth of wheat seedlings cultivated in solution and the alleviation of nitric oxide (NO)on the nickel toxicity were explored. Treatment of nickel at 100μmol/L caused dramatically reduction in seedling growth, decrease in chlorophyll levels and increase in MDA levels, and the increase in the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and glutathione S- transferase (GST) in leaves. However, pretreatment of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor , at 400μmol/L for 2 days alleviates significantly the nickel-induced symptom. The levels of chlorophyll and MDA in NO-pretreated seedlings were restored to the levels in the control. It is postulated that NO enhances the capacity of antioxidation in seedlings by increasing the activity of ascorbate peroxidase
    (APX) and glutathionein reductase (GR), and the levels of glutathione, and mitigates reduction of contents of calcium and iron induced by nickel.
    A New Azulene Pigment from the Fruiting Bodies of the Basidiomycete Lactarius hatsudake (Russulaceae)
    FANG Li-Zhen, YANG Wan-Qiu, DONG Ze-Jun, SHAO Hong-Jun, LIU Ji-Kai
    2007, 29(01):  122-124. 
    Abstract ( 2295 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2338KB) ( 1653 )   Save
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    A new green azulene- type pigment , was isolated from the fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Lactarius hatsudake together with three red-purple azulene pigments. The structure of the new compound 1 was determined as 1-[ (15 E)-buten-17-one ]-4-methyl-7-isopropylazulene (1) by spectral means including 2D-NMR.
    Chemical Constituents of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae)
    PENG Wei-Xin, ZHANG Yang-De, YANG Ke, XIAO Ye-Cheng
    2007, 29(01):  125-128. 
    Abstract ( 2667 )   HTML ( )   PDF (2403KB) ( 1797 )   Save
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    One new natural product, zingiberolide (1), together with seven known compounds, shogaol (2), 1-dehydrogingerdione (3), 6-gingesulfonic acid (4), 3, 5-dione-1, 7-bis (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl ) heptane (5), gingerenone A (6), β-sitosterol (7) and stigmastero1 (8) were isolated from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Rosc. Their structures were identified by spectral analysis and comparison with literature data.